The First Dog And The Most Recent Dog, In The White House

George Washington

George Washington was a first for a couple of things. He was the first president. He was the first president to have a dog. It is said that Washington’s love of dogs came from fox hunting. This caused him to start breeding his own dog. He wanted a faster dog. One of his friends heard about how Washington wanted to breed his hounds with something faster. So, Washington’s friend sent him some French hounds. Washington started to breed his own dogs with the French hounds. George Washington didn’t mean to leave a legacy with the new breed. He wanted to improve his collection of hunting dogs. He had several different breeds. He had Dalmatians, Italian Greyhounds, mastiffs, and many more. These dogs would have different tasks to do, like herding, working, and toy dogs. George Washington put his dogs to work, but this doesn’t mean that he didn’t love them any less. He names all his dogs, like Sweet Lips, Tipsy, and Tipler. He would go visit his dogs in the kennels every day. Georges Washington made sure that his dogs got the love and attention that they needed.


Joe Biden

Our recent elected president has brought back the tradition of having dogs in the white house. President Biden brought in two dogs. They are both German shepherds, named Major and Champ. Champ is a 12-year-old dog that has been in the white house before. This happened when Biden was the Vice President of the United States. But Major (2 years old) has never been in the White House before. His story is a little special. Major is the first rescue dog to live in the White House. This news blew up. Delaware Humane Association (the place that Major came from) held a virtual event for Major. Americans are excited to see Champ and Major live in the White House. They are the first dogs that have been in the White House, since Obama’s presidency.


Greyhounds Have Universal Blood

When it comes to blood transfusions, it’s more complicated than it seems. First, they have to find someone with the same blood type. The blood types are A, B, AB, and O. Second, we have to look at if it’s positive or negative. This is very important because if they transfuse the wrong blood type then the patient can get sick. But there is a blood type that is universal, O positive. This means that anyone can receive this blood. Humans are not the only “species” that need blood transfusions. Domestic dogs are another species that need blood transfusions.

Domestic dogs needs blood transfusions for the same reason. They could need it because blood lost, illnesses, and other emergency situations. But dog blood is different from human blood. It is more complicated. First, there are 12 different blood types that a dog could have. Secondly, their blood type is considered universal only if they have a negative blood type. This is for certain blood antigens. Testing dog blood takes longer, so it is easier for dogs to only receive ‘negative’ blood. There are not a lot of breeds that have universal blood, but greyhounds are one.

85% of greyhounds have universal blood. Their blood is rich in red blood cells, lower than average white blood cells, and platelets. When it comes to the procedure, the dogs are not sedated. They don’t need to be sedated because of the dogs’ big veins and calm demeanor. The large veins make it easy to draw the blood. Calm demeanor means that they are relaxed when the blood is being drawn. Some greyhounds even fall asleep during the drawing of blood. For a dog to be able to donate blood, they need to be between 1-7 years old and weigh over 50 pounds.

It is important to check the blood type between the same animals. This is because within that there are different blood types. It is also important to not mix blood between species. This could cause the animal to die. For example, if a cat receives dog blood then this wouldn’t be helpful. This is because dogs and cats don’t have the same blood.


3 Food That Dogs Should Not Eat


            Dogs cannot eat pits from peaches, apricots, cherries, and plums. The first reason is because the dogs could choke on the pit. Pits are usually hard to break down. If the dog is unable to break down the pit, then it could get stuck in their throat, causing the dog to stop breathing. Even if the dog was able to swallow the pit, it could get stuck in the intestines. This could cause fatal problems. But the biggest problem is that the pits are poisonous. This is because there is amygdalin, which is a form of cyanide, in the pits. So if a dog consumes a lot of pits then it could cause fatal problems, like kidney failure. If you are planning on getting a peach, apricot, cherry, or plum tree then I would be careful. This gives the dog easier access to the pit of the fruits. But it is not only the pits that are poisonous. The leaves and stems are also poisonous. The suggestion would be to keep the dogs away or keep the yard very clean. They could get sick even if they eat a little over time because it will start to build up. This is because the dog’s body can’t digest the amygdalin.


Potato, Tomato, and Rhubarb Leaves

            When it comes to potatoes and tomatoes, dogs should not eat these raw or the foliage of the plants. This is because they contain solanine (a poison). If the dog gets some solanine into the system, it could affect the function of their nervous system and the organs. Solanine would affect the main organs of the body, like the liver, brain, lungs, heart, and kidneys. If the dog digest a lot of solanine, then it would affect the dog heavily. It is okay for a dog to eat a ripe tomato here and there. This is because it contains less amount of solanine in the fruit. Unripe fruits contains more solanine. If you have a these plants in your garden, make sure that the dog can’t get to them. Rhubarb leaves are also poisonous for the dogs. This is because the leaves contain oxalic acid. Ingesting the leaves could cause intense pain and irritation. Most animals will stop eating these plants because of the pain. But there are some animals that will get through the pain and eat more of it. If the dog does eat a larger amount, then they need to go to the emergency room.


Caffeine, Chocolate, and Tea

                      The reason that dogs can’t ingest caffeine, chocolate, and tea is because of theobromine. This is because the dogs can’t fully digest theobromine. Theobromine will start to build up in the dog’s system, which will cause it to become toxic. If the dog digest caffeine, chocolate, or tea, the dog could lose control over their muscles, have tremors, or seizures. It could also cause the dog to throw up. But this isn’t all bad because throwing up could remove some of the theobromine. Some other foods that contain theobromine is energy drinks, diet pills, sodas, and hot chocolate. If the dog digest a drop of caffeine, chocolate, or tea, then the dog should be okay. But in case, you should bring the dog in for a vet visit.



2020 was a stressful year, but we all got through it. But this doesn’t mean that the stress we experience will go away. We all have experienced stress at one point of our lives. We can have stress because of work, school and family. Relationships can cause us stress. But how should we deal with the stress? There are many ways to deal with our stress. One of them could be: petting a dog. Yes, petting a dog can help a human with their physical and mental health.

There are many different benefits when it comes to dogs, but one of the biggest one is comforting humans. There are many reasons on why dogs are the best at comforting when it comes to stress. The first one is that they live in the moment. They aren’t stuck in the past or stressing about the future. They enjoy what is happening in the moment. This is very hard for humans to do because we are always worrying or stressing about the future or thinking about the past. Secondly, they are always forgiving. An example of this is- the owner steps on the dogs paws or gets mad at the dog, owners often feel guilty after the accident. But the dogs are able to move on a couple of minutes. With humans, we often hold grudges against one another. If we are already feeling stressed, holding a grudge could add onto this stress. This is not because we want it to, but we are human and it happens.

Dogs provide companionship. This is important when it comes to stress because there are people who find comfort in talking to their dog. For some people, talking out problems can help them feel better and find a solution. We are human and we need that human connection. If we aren’t able to connect with others, then there is a possibility that one could start feeling alone and sad. A dog’s companionship can help us feel less lonely. This is because dog’s are known to be loyal to their owners. This loyalty can help us feel better, especially during Covid. With Covid, we are all trying to stay safe and healthy. This causes us to distance ourselves from others. One good thing that came out of this pandemic is that we have picked up new hobbies, like exercising.

Exercising is an activity that can help with stress. It is very difficult to get into thought. The soreness that is felt after working out. The energy that it takes. It’s not an activity that all find enjoyable. But taking a dog along with you might make it more enjoyable. It’s also beneficial for both parties. For humans, they are exercising more and gaining a healthier lifestyle. For dogs, it helps them with their behavior. They are less likely for them to act out and misbehave. If you are able to exercise everyday then this could help you build a routine. With dogs, a routine is good for them. It keeps them calm. It can help you get a routine too. Routines are important because they help with coping with stress.

Dogs can help with a routine and dealing with stress. It is important to take care of yourself and your needs. Dogs are way to help with that. But if you don’t like dogs and you’re more of a cat person, then cats are able to provide similar help.

Extinction Threatens Up to 1 Million Species

Planet Earth has been put on red alert by hundreds of leading scientists who have warned that humanity faces an existential threat within decades if the steep decline of nature is not reversed.

The recently-published conclusions of the greatest-ever stock-taking of the living world show that ecosystems and wild populations are shrinking, deteriorating or vanishing completely, and up to 1 million species of land and marine life could be made extinct by humans’ actions if present trends continue.

Food, pollination, clean water and a stable climate all depend on a thriving plant and animal population. But forests and wetlands are being erased worldwide and oceans are under growing stress, says the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the United Nations’ expert nature panel, in the landmark global assessment report. The three-year study, compiled by nearly 500 scientists, analyzed around 15,000 academic studies that focused on everything from plankton and fish to bees, coral, forests, frogs and insects, as well as drawing on indigenous knowledge.

If we continue to pollute the planet and waste natural resources as we have been doing, it won’t just affect people’s quality of life but will lead to a further deterioration of earth’s planetary systems, said the IPBES scientists.

“The essential, interconnected web of life on Earth is getting smaller and increasingly frayed. This loss is a direct result of human activity and constitutes a direct threat to human well-being in all regions of the world,” said professor Josef Settele, a research ecologist and co-chair of the 1,800 page report, the summary of which was agreed to by 132 governments, including Canada and the United States, at a meeting in Paris.

The scale and rapid speed of this decline of nature is unprecedented in human history and is likely to continue for at least 50 years, say the authors of the global study, but can still largely be turned around if governments, businesses and individuals urgently commit to working together to conserve and restore nature, and to use fewer natural resources better.

It will require a concerted worldwide effort to change the way we live, said IPBES chair Sir Robert Watson, a former chief scientist at NASA who is now with the U.K. government.

“The whole world is focused on climate change but loss of biodiversity is just as important,” said Watson. “You can’t deal with one without the other. There is a recognition now that biodiversity is an environmental issue, but it’s also about economics and development, too. We have to reform the economic system.”

The global assessment report, which will not be published in full until later this year (only the conclusions have been released), is unique among governmental biodiversity studies because it identifies both the direct drivers of nature’s losses ― such as climate change, agricultural expansion, pollution and the exploitation of oceans and forests ― and the underlying causes.

These indirect drivers are more controversial and include world population, which has doubled since 1970 (from 3.7 billion to 7.6 billion people), the tenfold increase in global trade over the last five decades, the sheer amount of goods that people now buy in rich countries, as well as supply chains, the endless pursuit of economic growth, damaging subsidies and the sharp growth of new technologies, all of which put demands on natural resources.

Unless both direct and indirect drivers are addressed simultaneously, there is little hope of the transformational change needed to avert a planetary crisis, said global assessment lead author Kai Chan, professor at the Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability at the University of British Columbia.

“The present system (of environmental protection) has not worked well enough. Governments must get serious about reining in the power of business to regulate itself. We must also focus on supply chains. At present, nature is undermined every time we buy something through the raw materials used or the way goods are produced,” he said.

“Few governments fully understand the magnitude of the problems we face. Most deny the reality of the existential threat we face,” Chan added.

The global assessment report also shows:
• Urban areas have more than doubled in size since 1992, and 100 million hectares (247 million acres) of tropical forest were lost from 1980 to 2000.
• Around 25% of animal and plant species are threatened, and around 1 million species already face extinction, many within decades if no action is taken.
• The current rate of species extinction is at least tens to hundreds of times higher than it has averaged over the past 10 million years.
• Nearly half the live coral cover on coral reefs has been lost since the 1870s, with losses in recent decades accelerating due to climate change.
• Two-thirds of the oceans are under stress, and over 85% of wetlands area has been lost.
• The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events have increased in the past 50 years, while the global average sea level has risen by between 6 and 8 inches since 1900.
• Climate change is projected to become increasingly important as a direct driver of changes in nature and its contributions to humanity in the next decades.
• There are around 2,500 conflicts over fossil fuels, water, food and land currently occurring worldwide.

The global assessment report is a critical piece of science, Joyce Msuya, acting executive director of the U.N.’s Environment Program, said. “It is a reminder that nature is not a luxury but is the building block of economic growth, food security, livelihoods and health. It tells us there is a window of opportunity to change track.”

The authors collectively call for bold, far-reaching economic and social changes, including paying for large-scale ecological restoration of degraded lands, and strengthening international targets to control climate change and biodiversity loss.

NGOs are among those echoing the call for major, transformative changes. “We must end this war against nature. We must eat less meat, which takes up most agricultural land at the expense of nature, and we must stop treating our oceans like a waste dump while also exploiting their resources to the point of collapse,” said John Sauven, director of Greenpeace.

The good news, said Watson, is that governments have accepted the report. “They know the problem. They cannot disagree with the evidence because they have signed off on it. Now we need action.”

Climate Change Visible Worldwide

From the drunken forests of Alaska, to the vanishing glaciers of Glacier National Park, to the bleaching of coral reefs in the Florida Keys, climate change is impacting our world.

The drunken forests are caused by softening of the permafrost which leads to tilting of the trees. Rising temperatures are threatening the glaciers and warming waters re causing a shift in the composition of oceans that has bleached out color in the reefs.

“There’s more carbon in the water,” explains Mike Gunter Jr. “Some corals are more resilient than others. You’ll see parts of a reef that look really good,” but in others, change is noticeable.

Gunter, a professor at Rollins College in Winter Park, Fla. has written a new book, “Tales of an Ecotourist: What Travel to Wild Places Can Teach Us About Climate Change.”

El Nino, a cyclical pattern of Pacific storms caused by warm water, has become stronger in recent years, researchers say. That has affected Ecuador’s famed Galapagos Islands known for bird, reptile and sea life.

The lowest place on earth, the Dead Sea in Israel and Jordan, is shrinking, Gunter reports. In the past 40 years, the salt-laden sea has diminished by a third and dropped 80 feet. Much of the change is due to increased use of water from the Jordan River for irrigation.

The flooding which has long plagued the canal city of Venice, Italy, has intensified in recent years. Some areas are regularly inundated at peak high tides. The city is developing plans to build flood walls and other barriers to keep the sea at bay.

The types of species found at Acadia National Park, Maine, is shifting. The area’s lobster population is predicted to migrate north in search of cooler waters, as will the whales that pass by offshore.

In Antarctica, gentoo penguins thrive because they build pebble nests on shorelines newly exposed by melting ice. On the other hand, adelle penguins are having trouble because they fish from floating sea ice, which is less plentiful.

The south-central Kansas town of Greensburg is an environmental survivor, Gunter says. It was nearly destroyed by a 2007 tornado but has been rebuilt as one of the most eco-conscious places in the world. It was the first U.S. city to fully adopt LED street lights, and it gets 100% of its power from renewable energy. It “has rebuilt itself stronger than before,” Gunter notes.

Climate Change Threatens Glaciers

Nearly half of the glaciers in World Heritage sites will disappear by the end of this century if greenhouse gas emissions continue unchecked, according to a study the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) focused on the 46 World Heritage sites where glaciers are found.

The authors predict “glacier extinction by 2100 under a high emission scenario in 21 of the 46 natural World Heritage sites where glaciers are currently found,” IUCN said in a statement.

Sites likely to see the most severe ice-loss are Los Glaciares National Park in Argentina and Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, which straddles the Alberta-Montana border.

Twelve North American conservation groups from the U.S. and Canada petitioned the World Heritage Committee to add Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park to the list of World Heritage Sites in danger due to impacts from climate change.

Climate change is causing rapid disappearance of the park’s glaciers and significant damage to the park’s vegetation and wildlife, according to the Center for Biological Diversity.

Glacier National Park once was home to approximately 150 glaciers, but only 27 remained as of 2006, and those are rapidly melting, according to CBD. Global warming is responsible for the disappearance of the park’s iconic glaciers.

“The glaciers that Glacier National Park was named for will vanish entirely by 2030 if current climate change trends continue,” said Kassie Siegel of CBD.

The Alps, Europe’s famous mountain range, still loom over the continent, but warming temperatures are taking a toll. Glaciers in The Alps are receding and plant life is changing as lowland species gain a foothold.

A drunken forest may sound like something out of a “Harry Potter” book, but it is a change caused by rising temperatures. As permafrost, the layer of permanently frozen ground, disappears in Alaska, trees begin to tilt. “There are forests that are leaning like a hurricane blew them. They look like they’ve had too much to drink,” says Mike Gunter Jr., a professor at Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida.

Climate Change Hammers Canada

From the temperate Pacific rainforests of British Columbia to the old French architecture of Montreal, the chilly, vital Arctic to Banff National Park, considered by many to be “the zenith of the entire Rocky Mountains,” Canada is incredibly beautiful and full of wonder. But all that wonder is at risk.

“The environmental threat to our world is greater than any time in human history. Just look around. We’re already seeing the impacts of climate change seared across the world,” says the Catherine McKenna, Canada’s minister of environment and climate change.

“Average temperatures in Canada have already increased by 1.7 degrees Celsius since 1948. Continued amplification of warming at high latitudes is projected under all scenarios of future climate change,” McKenna explains. “Along with higher temperatures and increased rainfall, we will see rising sea levels. Warmer waters and ocean acidification are expected to become increasingly evident over the next century.”
The nation has experienced a higher rate of warming than most other regions of the world, particularly in its far-north and west. This warming has been most pronounced in the winter and springtime, and it’s leading to a number of major impacts across the country. These include permafrost and ice melt in the Arctic, sea-level rise, and more frequent and severe extreme weather, such as once-uncommon heat extremes and major changes in precipitation.

The Arctic is an incredibly important and very fragile ecosystem – and it’s warming at a much faster rate than much of the rest of the world. Scientists are already seeing dramatic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover, particularly in the summertime. This shrinking sea ice disrupts normal ocean circulation and creates changes in climate and weather around the globe.

For the minister, seeing the human impacts of this warming on her fellow Canadians has hit by far the hardest. “This is not a matter of inconvenience to the Inuit – the melting of the sea ice and permafrost threaten the Inuit way of life and their very survival. The consequences are painful and profound.

Canada is largely thought of as a temperate-to-cool country, one insulated for the most part from the worst sorts of extreme weather. Or at least it wasn’t for much of the nation’s history. The last few decades, however, have brought dangerous changes to Canada’s climate and weather.

“In the Canadian West, wildfires rage stronger and harsher than ever before. We’ve witnessed cities and homes burning, ranchers losing their stables – and each fire season, more communities displaced by the flames,” McKenna explains. “On the prairies, droughts and floods occur with increasing frequency, and produce greater devastation for families and farmers whose homes and businesses are harmed.”

These devastating events are being driven in large part by ever-rising temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. On average, Canada has become both warmer and wetter. But the amount and distribution of rain, snow and ice across Canada has also shifted.

Like so many places around the globe, Canada has seen an increase in hot extremes. Intense heat can have a serious impact on human health, and – thanks at least in part to climate change – days of extremely high temperatures and poor air quality are only becoming more frequent. Worse, these days hit vulnerable populations in urban centers the hardest – specifically, babies, children and seniors, as well as people who work outdoors or are already ill.

In early July 2018, the southern part of the Canadian province of Québec endured one such period of sweltering heat – and it took the lives of up to 54 people, most of them between the ages of 50 and 85. These changing circumstances also likely played a major role in the nation’s most destructive wildfire ever, when more than 88,000 people were evacuated from Fort McMurray in Alberta in May 2016. More than 2,400 homes and other buildings were destroyed.

“From 1983 to 2004, insurance claims in Canada from severe-weather events totaled almost $400 million a year. In the past decade alone, that amount tripled to more than $1 billion a year. Climate change is expected to cost Canada’s economy $5 billion a year by 2020, and as much as $43 billion a year by 2050. Inaction is simply not an option,” McKenna explained.

Driven by melting land ice and seawater warming and expanding, global sea levels could rise by as much as a meter, or perhaps even more, by the end of the century. Canada is a maritime nation. Eight of its 10 provinces and all three territories border ocean waters. That puts the western Arctic, Canada’s southeastern Atlantic Coast and major cities like Vancouver and Halifax right on the front lines of sea-level rise.

With oceans rising faster than at any time in almost 3,000 years and Antarctic ice loss now believed to be nearly three times greater than earlier estimates, there’s great cause for concern. Rising seas and increased storm surge height may cause flooding all along the country’s Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Beaufort Sea coasts, allowing salt water intrusion into some inland areas, potentially contaminating ground and surface freshwater.

“In our big, cold country on the upper half of North America, the environment impacts where Canadians live, how we work and how we see our future. Canadians, including myself, are focused on ensuring that we protect our environment all while creating good jobs and making sure our businesses are positioned to compete as we move to a cleaner and more sustainable future,” McKenna says.

Can ‘Net Zero’ Help Reinvent Cities?

“Net zero,“ which refers to buildings that produce enough energy to offset what they use, is a growing buzzword in residential and commercial construction. Net zero, sometimes called “zero energy”, helps pave the way for sustainability and savings on utility costs. Tim Weisheyer, broker-owner of Dream Builders Realty in Kissimmee, Fla., also hopes to show how net zero buildings can help recast Osceola County as a tech-forward hub. Weisheyer has been an integral part of the process of building what reportedly is the first net zero high school in the state of Florida.

In recent years, a handful of public and private net zero K-12 school projects have popped up across the country. School districts are largely using it as a way to lower utility costs and reduce operational costs. In Osceola County, city leaders want to also use its newly-built net zero school as a model for sustainability and as a teaching tool for the next generation of tech workers. That could prove beneficial to its economy, too: High-paying tech jobs have long been the silver bullet behind several leading housing markets.

Osceola County expects its population to double by 2040 and boasts a rapidly evolving economy. Tourism, including Walt Disney World Resort, and agriculture are its two main industries, but Weisheyer says the county is on the cusp of adding technology as a top-tier draw. Weisheyer, who serves on the Chamber of Commerce in his community, traveled with business leaders and lawmakers to Austin, Texas, to see how the city revitalized its economic development from a college town into a major tech hub.

From that, NeoCity was born in Osceola County to reinvent a 500-acre tract of land into a master-planned community that will serve as a tech hub for Central Florida. Weisheyer, who also serves as chairman of the Osceola County School Board, realized schools needed to part of that vision. “We need to make sure to develop education programs to develop the skilled workforce that we would need to support this,” he says.

As a byproduct of that vision, NeoCity Academy is set to open in August. The 500-student, demonstration high school has 45,000-square-feet and cost $15 million to build. As a net zero building, operational costs will remain low and unlock savings to the school district over the long term. The building was designed to use 76 percent less energy than a typical public school in the area. NeoCity Academy is dubbed as an immersive learning school that offers curriculum paths in the engineering, biomedical and cybersecurity fields.

The design of the building was well-thought-out to focus on energy efficiency, including a focus on air-tightness and the positioning of classrooms to maximize natural light and help lower utility costs. Solar panels on rooftops and walkway awnings also add electricity to its grid. LED lighting, integrated functions for water management and sensors throughout the building also help monitor indoor air quality and temperatures. The building’s energy production and usage will be displayed in real time on a building educational dashboard that can be used by teachers and students as part of the curriculum.

While not well-known, the south central Kansas town of Greensburg is an environmental survivor. The town was nearly destroyed by a tornado in 2007 but was rebuilt as one of the most eco-conscious places in the world. It was the first U.S. City to fully adopt LED street lights, and it gets 100% of its power from renewable energy.

Earth Landscape Heads for Major Transformation

Within the next 100 years, Earth as we know it could be transformed into an unrecognizable, alien world, with ecosystems around the globe falling apart. After looking at over 500 ancient climate records, scientists have said current climate change is comparable to what the planet went through when it came out of the last ice age – and the seismic shift in biodiversity that took place then will likely happen again.

At the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, when ice sheets covered most of North America, Asia and northern Europe, the planet warmed up by between four and seven degrees Celsius. Over the course of 10,000 years, the ice melted and entirely new ecosystems emerged, eventually developing into what we see today.

Climate scientists are currently predicting that if greenhouse gas emissions continue at their current rate (the so-called “business as usual” scenario) then the planet will have warmed around four degrees Celsius by 2100.

In a study published in Science, an international team of researchers looked at hundreds of paleontological records, examining how terrestrial ecosystems responded to climate change 20,000 years ago in a bid to establish how the planet might adjust to similar warming in the next 100 to 150 years. They looked at potential changes using different climate scenarios – from warming being limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius through to business-as-usual.

Findings showed that unless there are huge reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, terrestrial ecosystems around the world are at risk of “major transformation,” with most of these changes taking place over the next 100 years.

“Terrestrial vegetation over the entire planet is at substantial risk of major compositional and structural changes in the absence of markedly reduced [greenhouse gas] emissions,” they wrote. “Much of this change could occur during the 21st century, especially where vegetation disturbance is accelerated or amplified by human impacts. Many emerging ecosystems will be novel in composition, structure and function, and many will be ephemeral under sustained climate change; equilibrium states may not be attained until the 22nd century or beyond.”

Study co-author Jonathan Overpeck, from the University of Michigan, said there will be a huge ricochet effect that will eventually threaten water and food security. “If we allow climate change to go unchecked, the vegetation of this planet is going to look completely different than it does today, and that means a huge risk to the diversity of the planet,” he said in a statement.

“We’re talking about global landscape change that is ubiquitous and dramatic, and we’re already starting to see it in the United States, as well as around the globe. Our study provides yet another wake-up call that we need to act now to move rapidly towards an emission-free global economy.”